Partitioned Freedom – The Conclusion

The final years and the lessons.
Keywords: Second Round Table Conference | Communal Awards | Poona Pact | Provincial Elections | Regional Muslim Parties | Divide and Quit | Lessons
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A decade of appeasement had only helped the Muslim League gain greater legitimacy. When the Second Round Table Conference came in September 1931, the League leadership played an even more divisive role.

Jinnah and the Aga Khan were present in London for the Conference on behalf of the League. Gandhi was the lone Congress representative. Dr. B R Ambedkar was there representing the Depressed Classes. There were envoys from several communities including the Sikhs, the Parsis, the Anglo-Indians, and the Concord of Princes. Behind Gandhi’s back, the Aga Khan held secret meetings with the leaders of various groups and put forward a proposal before the British for enhanced separate representation for all of them in the Indian legislature. Gandhi firmly rejected this fragmentation of the Indian society in the name of creating separate electorates. Already, the Muslims and a few other minorities enjoyed separate electorates under the Government of India Act 1919.

British Prime Minister Ramsay McDonald went ahead with a modified version of the League’s recommendations and announced the famous Communal Award 1932. It came as a rude shock to the Congress leadership. They were especially aghast at the British decision to provide exclusive electorates for the Depressed Classes by separating them from other Hindus.

Gandhi viewed the Communal Award as the negation of his years of toil. He rightly believed that the separate electorates would eventually perpetuate social evils like untouchability as they excluded the depressed classes from the rest of Hindu society. Disheartened and back in India, Gandhi announced an indefinite fast against the Award on September 20, 1932. 

Gandhi viewed the Communal Award as the negation of his years of toil. He rightly believed that the separate electorates would eventually perpetuate social evils like untouchability as they excluded the depressed classes from the rest of Hindu society.

The Congress command persuaded the leader of the depressed classes, Dr. Ambedkar to engage in negotiations with Gandhi at the Yerawada prison. The negotiations led to the Poona Pact, which was signed by Dr. Ambedkar from the depressed classes and Madan Mohan Malaviya from the Congress. Under the pact, Dr. Ambedkar agreed to give up the demand for exclusive electorates for the depressed classes and secured instead a larger number of seats for the community from 71 to 147 under the Hindu quota. The Communal Award was accordingly amended in 1933. Gandhi thus prevented the Hindu society from further fragmentation.

However, regarding the rest of the Award, Congress continued its politics of ambiguity and appeasement. Though it opposed the Communal Award in principle, the consent of the minorities was needed to take a final position, the Congress leaders argued. The Muslim leaders in Congress like Dr. Ansari started supporting the Award. Finally, Congress took a bizarre stand of “neither accepting nor rejecting” the Communal Award. This new concession irked leaders like Madan Mohan Malaviya and Loknayak Aney, who resigned and started the Congress Nationalist Party.

The Communal Award came as a significant setback to Gandhi’s efforts for Hindu-Muslim unity and it gave greater teeth to Jinnah and the Muslim League. The stridency of the League’s separatist rhetoric increased. Jinnah now insisted that the Congress should represent Hindus only. 

The provincial elections of 1937 provided an excellent opportunity to the Congress. Despite its separatist rhetoric, the Muslim League was decisively rejected in all the Muslim majority provinces in the country. Out of the 482 exclusive Muslim constituencies, the League could hardly win 109 seats. While the Congress was able to form governments in eight provinces, the League could not form even in one. The Muslim voters preferred other Muslim parties like the Unionists in Punjab, the Krishak Praja Party in Bengal, and the Assam Valley Muslim Party in Assam. Several of those regional Muslim outfits were keen to join hands with the Congress. 

Despite its separatist rhetoric, the Muslim League was decisively rejected in all the Muslim majority provinces in the country.

The Muslim League was in utter disarray, and Jinnah demoralised. But two steps taken by the Congress leadership helped Jinnah revive his fortunes once again. 

First was the Congress’s decision to reach out to Jinnah instead of talking to the leaders of the regional Muslim parties. Gandhi, Nehru, and Bose approached Jinnah once again with a proposal to work together. This gave Jinnah a fresh lease of life. While the League refused the Congress’s offer, Jinnah succeeded in attracting smaller Muslim parties into his fold. The second self-defeating move was the decision of the Congress on October 22, 1939, to ask all provincial governments to resign in response to Viceroy Linlithgow’s decision to involve India in the Second World War without committing to grant self-rule after the War. The League seized this opportunity and declared its support to the British in return for enhanced protection to the League in the provinces. Jinnah appealed to the Muslims to celebrate December 22, 1939, as the ‘Day of Deliverance’ from the ‘unjust Congress regime.’

At Lahore in 1940, when the League demanded Pakistan, Gandhi realised that it was time for a more decisive action. On August 8, 1942, at its Mumbai session, the Congress launched the Quit India movement. The Muslim League responded by asking the British to ‘Divide and Quit’. March 23, 1943, was observed by the League as Pakistan Day.

C Rajagopalachari approached Gandhi at Yerawada prison with a formula for a thaw between the Congress and the League. Known as the C R Formula, it proposed that if the League endorsed the demand for national independence, the Congress would agree to the demarcation of contiguous Muslim majority districts in the North-West and the North-East of India after the War. A plebiscite would be conducted on the basis of the adult franchise over the demand for Pakistan. Jinnah immediately dismissed the proposal as a “shadow and a husk, a maimed and moth-eaten Pakistan.” But he also expressed vicarious satisfaction that at last, Gandhi had accepted “the principle of Pakistan”.

Eventually, those who did not vote for the League ended up in Pakistan, and those who voted for it remained in India. 

Gandhi persisted. “Let us meet whenever you wish. Do not disappoint me,” he wrote to Jinnah. The two finally met at Mumbai. For full nineteen days, from 9th to 27th September 1944, Gandhi climbed up the steps of Jinnah’s place, ‘almost daily, and sometimes even twice in a day’. Gandhi would address Jinnah as ‘Quaid-e-Azam’ – Great leader, while Jinnah would reciprocate with ‘Mr. Gandhi’. On September 27, 1944, Jinnah announced the termination of the talks without any result.

In the provincial elections in 1946, the League secured convincing victories in Muslim seats but it fell short of a majority everywhere. In fact, the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), which became Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2010, gave a huge majority to the Congress. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the senior Congress leader of the NWFP, famous as the Frontier Gandhi, shed tears when his province became a part of Pakistan. In Punjab, the Congress and the Akalis together had an equal number of seats to that of the League. Eventually, those who did not vote for the League ended up in Pakistan, and those who voted for it remained in India.  

The Direct Action ensued in 1946 and Partition followed a year later. 

Conclusion:

Firstly, countries should never pander to separatist sentiments even with good intentions. Compulsions of time should not become convictions. Secondly, Jinnah’s notion of religion-based nationhood couldn’t stand the test of time. In less than 25 years, Pakistan was split into two.

Why is this history relevant today? India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are three sovereign nations. We respect the sovereignty of each of our neighbours and strive for cordial relations with them. But the partition saga has several lessons. Firstly, countries should never pander to separatist sentiments even with good intentions. Compulsions of time should not become convictions. Secondly, Jinnah’s notion of religion-based nationhood couldn’t stand the test of time. In less than 25 years, Pakistan was split into two.

But most importantly, as the Spanish writer-philosopher George Santayana said: “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” 

<<Click to Read Part VI

11 comments

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  • Thanks for properly recounting recent history. It is very important to remember history so that same mistakes are not committed again.

  • The real face of so called freedom fighters is known to the yenger generation.thanks.What all the problems now we are facing is because of these traitors.

  • Brillant article-series opening fresh research into Indian struggle for freedom..the conclusion amply supported by constructive research to drive home and reinforce the insight that never support separatist tendencies and religion based nationalism may not stand the test of time… the relevance of the article is to those elements who support separatist voices in kashmir. The final quotation of Spanish philosopher “those cannot remeber the past are condemned to repeat it” hits the nail on the right spot..Tq Mr.Rammadhav

  • Mushlim appeasement policy divided India divided by congress . We never try to devide India due to appeasement policy with Terrorists Group …
    Ramji, Thanks for the valuable serious of article regarding Partition of India, Appeachment Policy of Congre party and parts of India free movement…🙏🙏🙏

  • Our liberals represented by Congress, left and some regional outfits still live in their appeasement mode without realising the consequences clearly ignoring the lessons of history. Future generations who are not conversant with these details of our history
    of partition willl have to pay a heavy price and it will be too late to save our nation from the divisive forces.

  • It’s a very interesting series on the partition of the country. Though painful to read, it’s a recorded history. Post independence, Sardar Patel, the first HM, should be lauded for the immediate abolition of the Communal Award . Otherwise, the other leaders of the Congress would have continued with it for their vote-bank politics.

  • This is a brilliant piece (the entire series) enlightening the events of history leading to the partition. Surely, generations present and future should understand this to ensure the integrity of our nation is secured. It is one of those events where you never want the phrase”history repeats” to ever be true! On the contrary, there are lessons for us to apply in dealing with fragile situations in certain sensitive parts of the country such as Jammu & Kashmir as well as the North East. Thank you Sir for sharing this important episode of the pre-independence voyage!

  • Surprisingly nuanced series of articles. A welcome change in style, even if one doesn’t completely agree with the rather oversimplified attribution of the partition to one single factor. And if what Gandhi conceded to Dr Ambedkar is considered a ‘right belief’ which “prevented the Hindu society from further fragmentation”, why is a similar approach towards the Muslim League derided as ‘appeasement’? The result may not be commensurate in the latter case, but can we find fault with it even as a ‘good intention’? That “religion-based nationhood couldn’t stand the test of time” is indeed a lesson of history that needs to remembered, and reiterated, even today! Otherwise, if the earlier mistake resulted in an immeasurable misery, the next will end up as farce. For, as Karl Marx remarked, “History repeats itself, first as tragedy, then as farce”.

  • I may be pardoned if I understand that Muslim League, Congress, Jinnah are the notorious stakeholders in freedom movement. Gandhi going to palace of Jinnah daily for 20 days to convince him & declare him as ‘Quaid-e-Azam’ – Great leader. Inspite of too much appeasement to Jinnah led to announcement the termination of talks -a big lesson for next move. The concluding quote of George Santayana “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” is perfect fit to ‘ The final years and the lessons’ . Post independence of six-decades was also black mailing & bargaining!

  • Read n completed the series, it reminds us of what our parents used to tell us the stories about partition. This is true that,
    Eventually, those who did not vote for the League ended up in Pakistan, and those who voted for it remained in India.

Ram Madhav

Ram Madhav

Ram Madhav is an Indian politician, author and thinker. Formerly, he has been the National General Secretary of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).

Ram Madhav also serves as a Member of the Governing Board of India Foundation, a New Delhi based premier think tank which seeks to articulate Indian Nationalistic perspective on issues of National and International importance.

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